Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. For assistance, please send e-mail to: mmwrq cdc. Type Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. An initial analysis of an ongoing, multicenter case-control study indicates that women who have used oral contraceptives are approximately half as likely to develop ovarian and endometrial cancer as women who have never used them and that, despite previous concerns, contraceptive use does not appear to increase a woman's risk of breast cancer. The study used population-based cancer registries in eight geographic regions across the United States to identify women years of age with newly diagnosed breast, ovarian, or endometrial cancer. Controls were women of the same ages without known cancer, chosen from the same geographic areas by dialing randomly selected telephone numbers.
Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk - Harvard Health
Oral contraceptives OCs affect the risk of several cancers in women, but have been virtually unstudied for squamous cell carcinoma SCC. Incident cases of SCC were identified by a network of dermatologists and pathology laboratories. Squamous cell carcinoma SCC of the skin, one of the major forms of non-melanoma skin cancer NMSC , is among the most common malignancy for whites of European ancestry Karagas et al. Incidence rates of SCC are higher in men than in women; however, in recent years, the rate of increase in these malignancies may be greater in women than in men Karagas et al. The reasons for SCC patterns differing by gender are not known. Sex steroids have been widely investigated as risk factors for a number of cancers in women, particularly cancers of reproductive organs, including breast, endometrial, ovarian, and cervical. Unlike these other cancers, the relationship between NMSC and oral contraceptives OCs has not been thoroughly examined.
Oral contraceptives birth control pills are hormone-containing medications that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and also by preventing sperm from penetrating through the cervix. By far the most commonly prescribed type of oral contraceptive in the United States contains synthetic versions of the natural female hormones estrogen and progesterone.
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology. The skin expresses estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors. In the presence of steroid hormones, such as those contained in oral contraceptives, the skin likely responds to hormonal signals that control the cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA replication, and other cellular functions. Some estrogen-responsive pathways have the potential to promote tumor development, including the augmentation of epidermal growth factor signaling, the expression of proto-oncogenes, and inhibition of apoptosis.